Gynecology is the field of medicine dealing with the health of women reproductive systems and breasts. This area medical practice basically concerns with diagnosis, treatment and management of obstetric ailments. More precisely a gynecologist may be required to deal with pregnancy and childbirth, hormone disorders, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), menstruation and various other fertility issues. Additionally, to a certain extent he/she may also be concerned with providing guidance and treatment during the preconception, prenatal, and postpartum periods.
Since the problems associated with pregnancy and sexual transmitted disease have elevated, women are exposed to larger risk of getting infections. Various problems like ovarian cancer have predominantly taken the life of many women thus proper checkups and screening is required during the stages of pregnancy.
Early diagnosis and prevention may ensure the health and safety for mother and child. Timely counseling and consultation may help the couples stay safe and positive about their relationships.
Infertility is an associated condition of reproductive system hindering the process of conceiving child. It entails to inability of conceiving even after the one year of unprotected sex. The problem of infertility may occur in both male and female. Infertility may arise either due to incompetency of one of the partners towards conceiving or an inability of a women partner to continue the pregnancy for full term. However, no matter who has the infertility problem, male or female, Dr Archana Dubey with her expertise can deal with all kind of related issues.
Infertility may occur in male partners as well. 50 percent of infertility cases arise due to issue of male infertility. The main reasons contributing towards the male infertility include:
- Abnormal production of sperms
- Genetic defects
- Health complications such as diabetes or infections such as gonorrhea, mumps, chlamydia or HIV.
- Enlarged veins in the testes (varicocele).
Moreover, the lifestyle choices other chronic health problems are also held responsible for causing infertility in the males.
Most of the infertility related problems in women’s arise due to physical constraints like environment, age, lifestyle or hormonal problems. The less common causes of fertility problems in women may include blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis and ectopic pregnancy.
Hystroscopy and laparoscopy
Hystroscopy and laparoscopy are two different procedures used for the diagnosis and correction of various gynecologic disorders on an outpatient basis. The recovery time for Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy is much less as compared to the recovery time required in abdominal surgeries. However, undergoing the laparoscopy and hysteroscopy the patients should openly discuss the associated risks and procedures.
Adolescence is one of the most important stages of human life. It is the transitional phase between childhood and adulthood. During this period of maturation, a person goes through various physical, psychological, identity and relationship changes. Conventionally, this period gets initiated with puberty and lasts until the growth halts. This is one of the most crucial stages in life and requires the person to be treated with supportive ways encouraging psychosocial development. Thus, the specialist Dr. Archana Dubey with her expertise provides the counseling and other treatment strategies for children undergoing the stages of adolescence.
What is Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)?
Polycystic ovary syndrome, commonly referred to as PCOS, is a medical disorder affecting the endocrine system in women. This hormonal disorder majorly harms women during their reproductive years. The condition of PCOS affects the ovaries and other reproductive organs of women responsible for producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Disturbance in these hormones further leads to irregularity in menstrual cycles. Moreover, the ovaries also tend to produce a small number of male hormones called androgens. The PCOS is stated to be a syndrome or group of symptoms affecting the ovaries and process of ovulation. The occurrence of this syndrome is categorized by the following three features:
- Cysts in ovaries
- high levels of male hormones
- irregular or skipped periods
The syndrome of PCOS is followed by growth of small fluid-filled sacs inside the ovaries. These sacs are basically the follicles containing immature egg. These eggs hinder the process of ovulation as they are incapable of attaining the maturation. Further, this lack of ovulation leads to alteration in the levels of estrogen, FSH, progesterone, and LH. The levels of Estrogen and progesterone get reduced as expected than usual. Alternatively, the levels of androgen become higher than usual. This abrupt increase in male hormone cause disruption to the menstrual cycle thus the women with PCOS syndrome get fewer periods than expected.
Causes of PCOS
Currently, no exact cause regarding the occurrence of PCOS condition has been established. Most of the doctors believe that the generation of excessive male hormone inhibits the ovaries from producing hormones and maturing them as normal. However, the cause of syndrome has been associated with genetics, low-grade inflammation, Insulin resistance.
Symptoms of PCOS
The most common symptoms associated with PCOS syndrome include:
- High Blood pressure
- Irregular periods
- Heavy Bleeding
- Acne, oily skin, and dandruff
- Weight pain
- excess androgen levels
- male pattern balding
- insulin resistance
- excessive facial and body hair growth
Impacts of PCOS on your health
- Sleep apnoea
- Depression and anxiety
- Endometrial cancer
- Metabolic syndrome
PCOS Diagnois Criteria
The condition of PCOS is typically diagnosed in women who meet at least two of the following three criteria:
- Increase in size of one or both ovaries.
- Formation of 12 or more follicles on one ovary
- cysts in the ovaries
Menstrual problems are the disruptive symptoms constituting physical and emotional disorders. The menstrual disorders include heavy bleeding, missed periods and unpredictable mood swings. One of the common menstrual problems is Menorrhagia.
It leads to heavy bleeding during the menstruation. These heavy periods further interfere with the quality of life and lead to emotional instability. However, for dealing with such problems doctors usually recommend the following tests:
- An ultrasound scan of your uterus
- Internal swabs
- Endometrial sampling
- A hysteroscopy
- Blood tests
Abnormal Vaginal Discharge
The term vaginal discharge entails to secretion of white or colorless fluid through vagina. This secretion of fluid is normal for women’s during their reproductive stages. However, the change in levels, quality and consistency of vaginal discharge is the indication of diseases or infection. Vaginal discharge having white or colorless appearance with no odor is attributed be a normal discharge. During the periods of menstruation this discharge witnesses regular fluctuations. Moreover, at time of ovulation this normal thin and clear fluid becomes thicker and heavier. The vaginal discharge increases with rise of sexual excitement in women. Furthermore, this discharge may also transform its appearance and occurrence during stages of pregnancy, menopause and consumption of birth control pills.
Dr. Archana Dubey hold expertise in treating all kind of vaginal infections and abnormal discharges.
Urinary problems can strike anyone irrespective of age or sex. It is quite common to get infection in this part of body. The urinary tract is an essential body part responsible for removing waste and excess fluid from the body in the form of urine. Basically, a urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when an infection, usually caused by bacteria, penetrates into the urinary tract. One of the most common urinary problems is cystitis. It occurs due to infection in bladder and can be caused by irritation, even without getting infection.
Thus, it is very crucial to treat the urinary problems with utmost care. However, it is advisable to approach the doctor well in time on seeing any symptoms for any such problem.
Urinary problems are a serious concern and need to be addressed immediately. However, if you come across any such issue try drinking as much as water possible. This will aid you in flushing impurities while easing up the pain. One can also take the medicines called urinary alkalinisers on consulting professionals on encountering urinary related problems. These medicines help in relieving pain and burning sensations arising due to cystitis.
It is always advisable to seek the help from doctors for getting rid from urinary problems. This is because the urinary issues are said to be associated with multiple factors. And if are you from Indore then Dr Archana Dubey’s clinic is the one stop solution. Dr Archana Dubey specializes in dealing with all kind of urinary issues.
Screening refers to the process of checking the body for cancer even before the symptoms occurs. This early identification and tests help in mitigating the risks associated with cancer. Moreover, the process of screening helps the doctors in treating the patient at stages when they are likely to achieve more benefits.
Screening tests and diagnostic methods
Every type of cancer has its own specific screening test. However, still some kind of cancer does not have the screening methods. Dr Archana Dubey in Indore helps the patients diagnose cancer at early stages by providing them the cancer screening tests.
For Breast cancer
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
- Breast ultrasound
For Cervical Cancer
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing.
- Pap test
- Cervical cancer Vaccine
Cervical Cancer Overview
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that arises in the cells of cervix. Cervix is the lower section of uterus that connects back to vagina. Basically, the cervical cancer occurs due to abnormal growth of cells that invade through the other parts of body. A sexually transmitted infection known as the human papilloma virus (HPV) is believed to be a prominent cause of cervical cancer. This virus for this infection survives for years and leads to development of cervical cancer tissues.
Cervical Cancer warning Signs
Early stages of cervical cancer reveal no signs or symptoms. The symptoms witnessed at the advanced stages of cervical cancer include:
- Vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse
- bleeding between periods
- pelvic pain
- bleeding in post-menopausal women
- Vaginal discharge with strong odor
- Pain during intercourse
Genesis of Cervical Cancer
Cancer occurs due to growth of abnormal cells. Unlike, the healthy cells these cells do not have a specific lifespan. Even on dying they get regenerated. Thus, abnormal cells never die and keep on dividing continuously. This uncontrolled growth leads to excessive build up of cells forming a lump or tumor in the body.
No exact cause leading to cervical cancer has been identified, although most of the doctors believe that HPV plays a role. Every women having HPV is not necessarily diagnosed with cervical cancer thus there is no exact regarding the link between disease and HPV. Apart from this, there are various other factors such as environment and lifestyle choices also affect the occurrence of cervical cancer.
Cervical Cancer Types
The particular type of cervical cancer helps in determining the course of medical actions and treatment required by the person. The main type of cervical cancers includes:
Squamous cell carcinoma
Most of the cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. This kind of cance occurs in the thin and flat (squamous cells) forming the outlining of cervix.
This kind of cervical cancer occurs in the column-shaped glandular cells forming the lining for cervical canal. In some cases both type of cells are responsible for causing cervical cancer. However, it is very rare that the cervical cancer occurs in cells other than these.
Factors that put you at Risk
Risk factors contributing to cervical cancer include:
- Early sexual activity
- Weak immune system
- Multiple sexual partners
- Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
- Vaccine against HPV
- Routine Pap tests.
- Practice safe sex.
What is Menopause?
Menopause refers to ceasing of menstrual cycles. It is a natural process that leads to depletion of ovarian oocytes due to aging. This particular condition is diagnosed 12 months after a women goes without menstrual period. Menopause is likely to occur in 40s or 50s. Often, the condition of menopause causes various physical and emotional disturbances, which may include lowered energy and sleep disruption.
Signs for Menopause
During the stages of menopause one can come across the following signs and symptoms:
- Vaginal dryness
- Hot flashes
- Lower fertility
- Irregular periods
- Night sweats
- Sleep disturbance
- Mood swings
- Weight gain and slowed metabolism
- Hair thinning
- Dry skin
- Urinary problems
- Loss of breast fullness
When to Seek Care
For ensuring the optimum health during the stages of menopause plan regular visits with your doctor. Take preventive health care during and after the menopause. Visit doctor at appropriate intervals so that the health screening tests including olonoscopy, mammography and triglyceride can be conducted at proper time. Apart from this, your doctor might also recommend you other tests such as thyroid testing based on your history, breast and pelvic exams.
What Leads to Condition
The most common causes of menopause include:
- Decline of reproductive hormones
- Chemotherapy and radiation therapy
- Primary ovarian insufficiency
During the menopause a women should take proper care of her health. A healthy diet comprising vegetables, fruits, whole grains, high-quality protein and dairy products should be include in the daily food habits.
After the menopause women are likely to be at the higher risk of getting following health complications:
- Urinary incontinence
- Weight gain
- cardiovascular diseases
- Sexual function
Cysts are basically the fluid-filled sacs. These can be formed at various places in the body. Ovarian cysts develop at the inner or outer part of ovaries. They are usually formed at the time of ovulation. The process of ovulation begins when the ovary releases an egg every month. The problem of ovarian cysts goes unnoticed many times due to the lack of indication of any symptom associated with it. Moreover, they are also painless sometimes. Fortunately, most of the ovarian cysts are benign only in few of the rare conditions these take the form of being cancerous. However, the treatment for these cysts depends on the type of cyst or tumor. While sometimes these do not even require the treatment.
Gynaecologist & Obstetrician Dr. Archana Dubey in Indore specializes in treating all kind of ovarian cysts and their associated complications.
Types of Cystic Ovarian Masses
The most common type of ovarian cysts also known as functional cysts are formed during the period of menstruation. These functional cysts are generally harmless and non-cancerous.
The most common type of ovarian cysts includes:
A follicular cyst is formed when the follicle of ovary does not breaks to open or rupture to release the egg. These cysts have no signs or symptoms and disappear within one to three months.
Corpus luteum Cysts
Corpus luteum cysts occur when a corpus luteum in ovary fails to regress after the release of an ovum. Most of the corpus luteum cysts resolve within the few weeks.
These cysts are caused due to endometriosis. The condition of Endometriosis occurs due to the formation of the lining of the uterus (womb) on the outside of the uterus.
These cysts are made up of a number of different cells and do not usually cause any symptoms. Moreover, these are harmless as well.
These are the cysts filled with watery fluid and grow from the cells present on the surface of ovaries.
Medical management / Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy has become the prominent method of management of ovarian cysts. Cysts that are not functional and grow continuously through two or three menstrual cycles while causing pain need removal. For the purpose of treating these; the type of surgery conducted may depend on the size of ovarian cyst. The most common surgical procedure used for removing these cysts is a laparoscopy.
The laparoscopic surgery may be used for removing a cyst from one or both of the ovaries. The laparoscopic treatment entails to using small incisions and specialized tools for the purpose of removing cyst through an incision in the abdomen. The laparoscopic surgery offers faster recovery as compared to open surgery conducted by making large incisions.
Pelvic Floor Repair Surgery Overview
The pelvic floor refers to the set of muscles, ligaments, and tissues holding the internal organs of women in place. The pelvic organs in women include bladder, uterus, bowel, rectum, and vagina. The brain in the human body is held responsible for controlling these organs and making them function properly. Various medical conditions such as childbirth injury or tear can lead to cause weakness in the muscles of the pelvic floor, known as pelvic floor diseases. Therefore, the treatment for such medical conditions requires the doctors to perform surgery for pelvic floor known as pelvic floor Repair surgery.
What to expect during Pelvic Floor Reconstruction
The reconstructive surgery of pelvic floor repair is performed for repairing or returning the organs to their original state. There are number of options available for the pelvic floor repair, however, the most common methods used are:
The surgical procedure of anterior repair is used for tightening the front wall of the vagina. This tightening helps in keeping the bladder or urethra in their proper positions. The anterior repair surgery hardly consumes half an hour and is performed under the general anesthesia. During the anterior repair, the surgeon creates the cut in the front wall of the vagina to push the bladder and urethra back into their original position.
The surgical procedure of posterior repair is performed for repairing or reinforcing the weakened layers of tissues between the rectum and vagina. The posterior vaginal repair surgery involves making a cut on the posterior (back) wall of the vagina. The operation usually takes 30 minutes and is performed under the general anesthesia. During this surgery, doctors use stitches to tighten the tissues present along the back wall of the vagina and try to push the bowel back into its position. Moreover, the doctors cut away a small section of the vaginal wall for the purpose of removing the extra tissues.